Welcome to NET-Fuels! Creating carbon-negative, sustainable fuels from biogenic waste.

Thermocatalytic reforming

ThermoCatalytic Reforming

Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR) has been developed by Fraunhofer to TRL 7 using sewage sludge as feedstock. TCR uses intermediate temperature pyrolysis with residence time of about 5 minutes. The high temperature vapours are reformed in the presence of the hot biochar and then condensed into a liquid “crude oil”. TCR has been tested with over 70 different biomass feedstocks (mainly wastes). The TCR oil shows high thermal stability and can be converted into diesel and gasoline after hydro-deoxygenation and distillation. The production of EN 590 diesel and EN 228 gasoline has been validated at TRL 7 in the EU-funded TO-SYN-FUEL project.

Pressure Swing Adsorption

Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) uses alumina, activated carbon and zeolite adsorbents to achieve a hydrogen purity of 99.99% with a recovery rate of up to 90%. To provide a continuous supply of hydrogen at least 4 adsorption columns are required. The feed gas from the TCR (post gas treatment) is pressurised and fed into the first adsorption column of the PSA unit. Impurities such as hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, water and N2 are selectively adsorbed onto the surface of the adsorbent material. Highly pure hydrogen exits the adsorber vessel at the top. After a defined time, the adsorption phase of this vessel stops and regeneration starts through depressurisation. The cycle then repeats itself and another adsorber takes over the task of adsorption to ensure continuous green hydrogen supply.

Pressure swing adsorption
Chemical equipment

Oxy-Combustion of Tail Gas

For this project, oxy-combustion will be implemented as a means of CO2 capture. Existing oxy-combustion techniques are generally limited to very large plant and/or are costly to implement. Combustion with oxygen instead of air offers the central advantage that the separation of CO2 can be achieved comparatively easily by condensation of the water vapor. The project will focus on cost reduction and ensuring a CO2 stream of sufficient purity through optimisation of the combustion chamber design and process.

Bio-electrical Methanation

NET-Fuels will build an optimized Bio-electrical Methanation (BEM) reactor to achieve CO2 conversion to CH4 with more than 95% efficiency, with purity of at least 95% and at power density from the W/m3 to the kW/m3 scale. The electricity conversion efficiency will rise up to 90% for CH4, versus the 40-70% efficiency provided by current P2G/F technologies. There will be in-situ H2 production at the cathode, coupling with a thermo-chemical off-gas for the first time, tolerant to gas impurities and different CO2 concentration of the TCR offgas stream, and with a novel modular technology with high adaptability in size and competitive CAPEX/OPEX cost. NET-Fuels will integrate a large (more than 50 litres) pilot reactor with the TCR/PSA/Oxy-combustion plant and validate the system at TRL 5.

Chemical equipment